A group of economists headed by Raj Chetty and Emmanual Saez (two of the biggest names in the field) have undertaken the "Equality of Opportunity" project. Their work is pretty impressive and has been featured in a number of public forums. Be sure to play around with some of the interactive webpages.
Here is the webpage: Equality of Opportunity
And some of their work on economic mobility:
1) An Atlas of Upward Mobility Shows Paths out of Poverty
2) The Best and Worst Places to Grow Up
3) In Climbing the Income Ladder Location Matters